B12 / Methylcobalamin / Hydroxocobalamin
Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. It is particularly important in the normal functioning of the nervous system via its role in the synthesis of myelin, and in the maturation of developing red blood cells in the bone marrow.
Vitamin B12 is one of eight B vitamins; it is the largest and most structurally complex vitamin. It consists of a class of chemically related compounds (vitamers), all of which show physiological activity. It contains the biochemically rare element cobalt (chemical symbol Co) positioned in the center of a corrin ring. The only organisms to produce vitamin B12 are certain bacteria, and archaea. Some of these bacteria are found in the soil around the grasses that ruminants eat; they are taken into the animal, proliferate, form part of their gut flora, and continue to produce vitamin B12.
Because there are no reliable vegetable sources of the vitamin, vegans must use a supplement or fortified foods for B12 intake or risk serious health consequences. Otherwise, most omnivorous people in developed countries obtain enough vitamin B12 from consuming animal products including meat, milk, eggs, and fish. Staple foods, especially those that form part of a vegan diet, are often fortified by having the vitamin added to them. Vitamin B12 supplements are available in single agent or multivitamin tablets; and pharmaceutical preparations may be given by intramuscular injection.
The most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in developed countries is impaired absorption due to a loss of gastric intrinsic factor, which must be bound to food-source B12 in order for absorption to occur. Another group affected are those on long term antacid therapy, using proton pump inhibitors, H2 blockers or other antacids. This condition may be characterised by limb neuropathy or a blood disorder called pernicious anemia, a type of megaloblastic anemia. Folate levels in the individual may affect the course of pathological changes and symptomatology. Deficiency is more likely after age 60, and increases in incidence with advancing age. Dietary deficiency is very rare in developed countries due to access to dietary meat and fortified foods, but children in some regions of developing countries are at particular risk due to increased requirements during growth coupled with lack of access to dietary B12; adults in these regions are also at risk. Other causes of vitamin B12 deficiency are much less frequent.
What does B12 do for me?
- Increases Red Blood Cell Production resulting in better oxygenation
- Helps synthesis of myelin which in turn increases neuronal transmission
- Helps with absorption in the gut
- Vegans and Vegetarians need supplementation as B12 is sourced through animal proteins
Glutathione (GSH) is an antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea. Glutathione is capable of preventing damage to important cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals, peroxides, lipid peroxides, and heavy metals. It is a tripeptide with a gamma peptide linkage between the carboxyl group of the glutamate side chain and the amine group of cysteine, and the carboxyl group of cysteine is attached by normal peptide linkage to a glycine.
Thiol groups are reducing agents, existing at a concentration around 5 mM in animal cells. Glutathione reduces disulfide bonds formed within cytoplasmic proteins to cysteines by serving as an electron donor. In the process, glutathione is converted to its oxidized form, glutathione disulfide(GSSG), also called L-(–)-glutathione.
Once oxidized, glutathione can be reduced back by glutathione reductase, using NADPH as an electron donor. The ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione within cells is often used as a measure of cellular oxidative stress.
What does Glutathione do for me?
- Important role in immune function via white blood cell production and is a potent anti- viral agent
- It is one of the strongest anti-cancer agents made by the body
- Glutathione levels decrease with age. It is involved in cellular differentiation and slows the aging process
- Given IV or Intramuscularly DOES NOT lighten skin.
NAD+(Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is a coenzyme naturally produced by the body that is associated with anti-aging. The level of NAD in the body declines with age, but supplementation can improve a wide variety of changes including restoring muscle function and athletic performance, improving brain regeneration, restoring energy levels, boosting mood, and reducing or eliminating addictions to substances such as drugs and alcohol.
Vitamin B1 Thiamine plays a central role in the release of energy from carbohydrates. It is involved in RNA and DNA production, as well as nerve function. Its active form is a coenzyme called thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), which takes part in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A in metabolism.
Vitamin B3 Niacin is composed of two structures: nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. There are two co-enzyme forms of niacin: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Both play an important role in energy transfer reactions in the metabolism of glucose, fat and alcohol.
NAD carries hydrogens and their electrons during metabolic reactions, including the pathway from the citric acid cycle to the electron transport chain. NADP is a coenzyme in lipid and nucleic acid synthesis.
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids and carbohydrates. Coenzyme A, which can be synthesised from pantothenic acid, is involved in the synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids, ketone bodies, cholesterol, phospholipids, steroid hormones, neurotransmitters (such as acetylcholine), and antibodies.
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamineThe active form pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) (depicted) serves as a cofactor in many enzyme reactions mainly in amino acid metabolism including biosynthesis of neurotransmitters.
Vitamin B9 Folate acts as a co-enzyme in the form of tetrahydrofolate (THF), which is involved in the transfer of single-carbon units in the metabolism of nucleic acids and amino acids. THF is involved in pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis, so is needed for normal cell division, especially during pregnancy and infancy, which are times of rapid growth. Folate also aids in erythropoiesis, the production of red blood cells.
What does B-Complex do for me?
- Maintain good health and well-being
- Increase Energy Levels
- Promotes Brain Function
- Promotes Cell Metabolism
- Helps prevent infections
- Promotes Cell Health
Methionine is an essential amino acid in humans. As the substrate for other amino acids such as cysteine and taurine, versatile compounds such as SAM-e, and the important antioxidant glutathione, methionine plays a critical role in the metabolism and health of many species, including humans.
Methionine is also an important part of angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels. Supplementation may benefit those suffering from copper poisoning. Overconsumption of methionine, the methyl group donor in DNA methylation, is related to cancer growth in a number of studies.
Inositol plays an important role as the structural basis for a number of secondary messengers in eukaryotic cells, the various inositol phosphates. In addition, inositol serves as an important component of the structural lipids phosphatidylinositol (PI) and its various phosphates, the phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) lipids.
Inositol or its phosphates and associated lipids are found in many foods, in particular fruit, especially cantaloupe and oranges. In plants, the hexaphosphate of inositol, phytic acid or its salts, the phytates, serve as phosphate stores in seed, for example in nuts and beans. Phytic acid also occurs in cereals with high bran content. Phytate is, however, not directly bioavailable to humans in the diet, since it is not digestible. Some food preparation techniques partly break down phytates to change this. However, inositol in the form of glycerophospholipids, as found in certain plant-derived substances such as lecithins is well-absorbed and relatively bioavailable.
What does MIC do for me?
- Breaks down estrogens Carnitine synthesis (the fat carrier molecule of the body)
- Choline synthesis
- Creatine synthesis
- Epinephrine synthesis
- Melatonin synthesis (aids in sleep, a powerful antioxidant)
- Nucleic acid synthesis- a component of DNA Breakdown of histamine
- Glutathione synthesis (the major detox antioxidant of the body)
- Maintains cartilage health
- Transports fats through the body
- Helps convert food into energy
- Helps neurons communicate better with the body’s nervous system
- Vital for hair growth
- Inositol combined with choline produces lecithin, aiding in the breakdown of fats such as cholesterolNormal functioning of all of the body’s cells
- Brain and nerve function
- Liver metabolism
- Transportation of nutrients throughout the body
- Has been linked to a decreased risk for Alzheimer’s disease and dementia
- Decreases the risk for heart disease as it helps break down fat such as cholesterol
- Helps prevent accumulation of fat in the liver- often known as Fatty Liver Disease
Taurine (/ˈtɔːriːn/), or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is an organic compound that is widely distributed in animal tissues. It is a major constituent of bile and can be found in the large intestine, and accounts for up to 0.1% of total human body weight. Taurine is named after the Latin taurus (a cognate of the Greek ταῦρος) which means bull or ox, as it was first isolated from ox bile in 1827 by German scientists Friedrich Tiedemann and Leopold Gmelin.
Taurine has many fundamental biological roles, such as conjugation of bile acids, antioxidation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, and modulation of calcium signaling. It is essential for cardiovascular function, and development and function of skeletal muscle, the retina, and the central nervous system. Taurine is a common additive to energy drinks, which are often promoted as such.
Taurine is unusual among biological molecules in being a sulfonic acid, while the vast majority of biologically occurring acids contain the more weakly acidic carboxyl group. While taurine is sometimes called an amino acid, and indeed is an acid containing an amino group, it is not an amino acid in the usual biochemical meaning of the term, which refers to those compounds containing both amino and carboxyl groups.
Taurine occurs naturally in fish and meat. The mean daily intake from omnivore diets was determined to be around 58 mg (range from 9 to 372 mg) and to be low or negligible from a strict vegan diet. In another study, taurine intake was estimated to be generally less than 200 mg/day, even in individuals eating a high-meat diet. According to a third study, taurine consumption was estimated to vary between 40 and 400 mg/day.
Taurine levels were found to be significantly lower in vegans than in a control group on a standard American diet.
What does Taurine do for me?
- Major role in normal functioning of brain, other electrical excitable tissues (heart)
- Promotes pumping action of heart
- Master osmolyte in the body – osmolyte function allows transport of excitable ions to the preferred side of the cell membrane (Na / Ca / Cl outside, Mg / K inside).
- Taurine is required in the cell membrane as well as in circulation to be effective as an osmolyte.
- Deficiency creates sub-optimal osmolyte activity
- Promotes digestion
- Essential for cardiovascular function
- Essential for development and function of skeletal muscles
- Essential for development and function the retina
- Essential for development and function of the central nervous system
Biotin is an important component of enzymes involved in metabolizing fats and carbohydrates, influencing cell growth, and affecting amino acidsinvolved in protein synthesis. Biotin assists in various metabolic reactions involving the transfer of carbon dioxide. It may also be helpful in maintaining a steady blood sugar level. Biotin is often recommended as a dietary supplement for strengthening hair and nails.
Biotin deficiency is rare. The amounts needed are small, a wide range of foods contain biotin, and intestinal bacteria synthesize biotin, which is then absorbed by the host animal. For that reason, statutory agencies in various countries, for example the USA and Australia, have not formally established a recommended daily intake of biotin. Instead, an adequate intake (AI) is identified based on the theory that average intake meets needs. Future research could result in biotin AIs with EARs and RDAs (see Dietary Reference Intake section).
A number of rare metabolic disorders exist in which an individual’s metabolism of biotin is abnormal, such as deficiency in the holocarboxylase synthetase enzyme which covalently links biotin onto the carboxylase, where the biotin acts as a cofactor.
Biotin is composed of a ureido ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring. The ureido ring acts as the carbon dioxide carrier in carboxylation reactions. A valeric acid substituent is attached to one of the carbon atoms of the tetrahydrothiophene ring. Biotin is a coenzyme for multiple carboxylase enzymes, which are involved in the digestion of carbohydrates, synthesis of fatty acids, and gluconeogenesis. Biotin is also required for the catabolism and utilization of the three branched-chain amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, and valine.
What does Biotin do for me?
- Helps metabolize fats and carbohydrates
- Influences cell growth
- Promotes steady blood sugar levels
- Promotes growth and strengthens hair, skin and
- Assists in carbon dioxide transfer
- Helps with amino acids involved in protein synthesis
Ascorbic Acid/Vitamin C
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement. It is used to prevent and treat scurvy. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters. It is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function. It also functions as an antioxidant.
What does Vitamin C do for me?
- Increases Immune system function
- Helps repair tissue
- Involved in enzyme functioning
- Prevents scurvy if you are an 18th century seaman
Selenium plays an important role in the health of the immune system. This antioxidant helps lower oxidative stress in the body, which reduces inflammation and enhances immunity. … Higher levels of selenium may be beneficial for boosting the immune system in patients with HIV, influenza, tuberculosis and hepatitis C.
Lysine is an essential amino acid and a building block of protein that is found in foods and supplements. The best food sources of Lysine are animal protein and legumes, but Lysine is also found in dairy products, nuts, and tofu. Lysine helps in calcium absorption, building muscle protein, recovering from surgery or sports injuries and the body’s production of hormones, enzymes, collagen and antibodies.
Magnesium is a nutrient that the body needs to stay healthy. Magnesium is important for many processes in the body, including regulating muscle and nerve function, blood sugar levels, and blood pressure and making protein, bone, and DNA.
Calcium is a mineral found in many foods. The body needs calcium to maintain strong bones and to carry out many important functions. Almost all calcium is stored in bones and teeth, where it supports their structure and hardness.
The body also needs calcium for muscles to move and for nerves to carry messages between the brain and every body part. In addition, calcium is used to help blood vessels move blood throughout the body and to help release hormones and enzymes that affect almost every function in the human body.